These functions are equivalent to write_csv() etc., but instead of writing to disk, they return a string.

format_delim(
  x,
  delim,
  na = "NA",
  append = FALSE,
  col_names = !append,
  quote = c("needed", "all", "none"),
  escape = c("double", "backslash", "none"),
  eol = "\n",
  quote_escape = deprecated()
)

format_csv(
  x,
  na = "NA",
  append = FALSE,
  col_names = !append,
  quote = c("needed", "all", "none"),
  escape = c("double", "backslash", "none"),
  eol = "\n",
  quote_escape = deprecated()
)

format_csv2(
  x,
  na = "NA",
  append = FALSE,
  col_names = !append,
  quote = c("needed", "all", "none"),
  escape = c("double", "backslash", "none"),
  eol = "\n",
  quote_escape = deprecated()
)

format_tsv(
  x,
  na = "NA",
  append = FALSE,
  col_names = !append,
  quote = c("needed", "all", "none"),
  escape = c("double", "backslash", "none"),
  eol = "\n",
  quote_escape = deprecated()
)

Arguments

x

A data frame.

delim

Delimiter used to separate values. Defaults to " " for write_delim(), "," for write_excel_csv() and ";" for write_excel_csv2(). Must be a single character.

na

String used for missing values. Defaults to NA. Missing values will never be quoted; strings with the same value as na will always be quoted.

append

If FALSE, will overwrite existing file. If TRUE, will append to existing file. In both cases, if the file does not exist a new file is created.

col_names

If FALSE, column names will not be included at the top of the file. If TRUE, column names will be included. If not specified, col_names will take the opposite value given to append.

quote

How to handle fields which contain characters that need to be quoted.

  • needed - Only quote fields which need them.

  • all - Quote all fields.

  • none - Never quote fields.

escape

The type of escape to use when quotes are in the data.

  • double - quotes are escaped by doubling them.

  • backslash - quotes are escaped by a preceding backslash.

  • none - quotes are not escaped.

eol

The end of line character to use. Most commonly either "\n" for Unix style newlines, or "\r\n" for Windows style newlines.

quote_escape

[Deprecated] , use the escape argument instead.

Value

A string.

Output

Factors are coerced to character. Doubles are formatted to a decimal string using the grisu3 algorithm. POSIXct values are formatted as ISO8601 with a UTC timezone Note: POSIXct objects in local or non-UTC timezones will be converted to UTC time before writing.

All columns are encoded as UTF-8. write_excel_csv() and write_excel_csv2() also include a UTF-8 Byte order mark which indicates to Excel the csv is UTF-8 encoded.

write_excel_csv2() and write_csv2 were created to allow users with different locale settings to save .csv files using their default settings (e.g. ; as the column separator and , as the decimal separator). This is common in some European countries.

Values are only quoted if they contain a comma, quote or newline.

The write_*() functions will automatically compress outputs if an appropriate extension is given. Three extensions are currently supported: .gz for gzip compression, .bz2 for bzip2 compression and .xz for lzma compression. See the examples for more information.

References

Florian Loitsch, Printing Floating-Point Numbers Quickly and Accurately with Integers, PLDI '10, http://www.cs.tufts.edu/~nr/cs257/archive/florian-loitsch/printf.pdf

Examples

# format_()* functions are useful for testing and reprexes cat(format_csv(mtcars))
#> mpg,cyl,disp,hp,drat,wt,qsec,vs,am,gear,carb #> 21,6,160,110,3.9,2.62,16.46,0,1,4,4 #> 21,6,160,110,3.9,2.875,17.02,0,1,4,4 #> 22.8,4,108,93,3.85,2.32,18.61,1,1,4,1 #> 21.4,6,258,110,3.08,3.215,19.44,1,0,3,1 #> 18.7,8,360,175,3.15,3.44,17.02,0,0,3,2 #> 18.1,6,225,105,2.76,3.46,20.22,1,0,3,1 #> 14.3,8,360,245,3.21,3.57,15.84,0,0,3,4 #> 24.4,4,146.7,62,3.69,3.19,20,1,0,4,2 #> 22.8,4,140.8,95,3.92,3.15,22.9,1,0,4,2 #> 19.2,6,167.6,123,3.92,3.44,18.3,1,0,4,4 #> 17.8,6,167.6,123,3.92,3.44,18.9,1,0,4,4 #> 16.4,8,275.8,180,3.07,4.07,17.4,0,0,3,3 #> 17.3,8,275.8,180,3.07,3.73,17.6,0,0,3,3 #> 15.2,8,275.8,180,3.07,3.78,18,0,0,3,3 #> 10.4,8,472,205,2.93,5.25,17.98,0,0,3,4 #> 10.4,8,460,215,3,5.424,17.82,0,0,3,4 #> 14.7,8,440,230,3.23,5.345,17.42,0,0,3,4 #> 32.4,4,78.7,66,4.08,2.2,19.47,1,1,4,1 #> 30.4,4,75.7,52,4.93,1.615,18.52,1,1,4,2 #> 33.9,4,71.1,65,4.22,1.835,19.9,1,1,4,1 #> 21.5,4,120.1,97,3.7,2.465,20.01,1,0,3,1 #> 15.5,8,318,150,2.76,3.52,16.87,0,0,3,2 #> 15.2,8,304,150,3.15,3.435,17.3,0,0,3,2 #> 13.3,8,350,245,3.73,3.84,15.41,0,0,3,4 #> 19.2,8,400,175,3.08,3.845,17.05,0,0,3,2 #> 27.3,4,79,66,4.08,1.935,18.9,1,1,4,1 #> 26,4,120.3,91,4.43,2.14,16.7,0,1,5,2 #> 30.4,4,95.1,113,3.77,1.513,16.9,1,1,5,2 #> 15.8,8,351,264,4.22,3.17,14.5,0,1,5,4 #> 19.7,6,145,175,3.62,2.77,15.5,0,1,5,6 #> 15,8,301,335,3.54,3.57,14.6,0,1,5,8 #> 21.4,4,121,109,4.11,2.78,18.6,1,1,4,2
cat(format_tsv(mtcars))
#> mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb #> 21 6 160 110 3.9 2.62 16.46 0 1 4 4 #> 21 6 160 110 3.9 2.875 17.02 0 1 4 4 #> 22.8 4 108 93 3.85 2.32 18.61 1 1 4 1 #> 21.4 6 258 110 3.08 3.215 19.44 1 0 3 1 #> 18.7 8 360 175 3.15 3.44 17.02 0 0 3 2 #> 18.1 6 225 105 2.76 3.46 20.22 1 0 3 1 #> 14.3 8 360 245 3.21 3.57 15.84 0 0 3 4 #> 24.4 4 146.7 62 3.69 3.19 20 1 0 4 2 #> 22.8 4 140.8 95 3.92 3.15 22.9 1 0 4 2 #> 19.2 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.44 18.3 1 0 4 4 #> 17.8 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.44 18.9 1 0 4 4 #> 16.4 8 275.8 180 3.07 4.07 17.4 0 0 3 3 #> 17.3 8 275.8 180 3.07 3.73 17.6 0 0 3 3 #> 15.2 8 275.8 180 3.07 3.78 18 0 0 3 3 #> 10.4 8 472 205 2.93 5.25 17.98 0 0 3 4 #> 10.4 8 460 215 3 5.424 17.82 0 0 3 4 #> 14.7 8 440 230 3.23 5.345 17.42 0 0 3 4 #> 32.4 4 78.7 66 4.08 2.2 19.47 1 1 4 1 #> 30.4 4 75.7 52 4.93 1.615 18.52 1 1 4 2 #> 33.9 4 71.1 65 4.22 1.835 19.9 1 1 4 1 #> 21.5 4 120.1 97 3.7 2.465 20.01 1 0 3 1 #> 15.5 8 318 150 2.76 3.52 16.87 0 0 3 2 #> 15.2 8 304 150 3.15 3.435 17.3 0 0 3 2 #> 13.3 8 350 245 3.73 3.84 15.41 0 0 3 4 #> 19.2 8 400 175 3.08 3.845 17.05 0 0 3 2 #> 27.3 4 79 66 4.08 1.935 18.9 1 1 4 1 #> 26 4 120.3 91 4.43 2.14 16.7 0 1 5 2 #> 30.4 4 95.1 113 3.77 1.513 16.9 1 1 5 2 #> 15.8 8 351 264 4.22 3.17 14.5 0 1 5 4 #> 19.7 6 145 175 3.62 2.77 15.5 0 1 5 6 #> 15 8 301 335 3.54 3.57 14.6 0 1 5 8 #> 21.4 4 121 109 4.11 2.78 18.6 1 1 4 2
cat(format_delim(mtcars, ";"))
#> mpg;cyl;disp;hp;drat;wt;qsec;vs;am;gear;carb #> 21;6;160;110;3.9;2.62;16.46;0;1;4;4 #> 21;6;160;110;3.9;2.875;17.02;0;1;4;4 #> 22.8;4;108;93;3.85;2.32;18.61;1;1;4;1 #> 21.4;6;258;110;3.08;3.215;19.44;1;0;3;1 #> 18.7;8;360;175;3.15;3.44;17.02;0;0;3;2 #> 18.1;6;225;105;2.76;3.46;20.22;1;0;3;1 #> 14.3;8;360;245;3.21;3.57;15.84;0;0;3;4 #> 24.4;4;146.7;62;3.69;3.19;20;1;0;4;2 #> 22.8;4;140.8;95;3.92;3.15;22.9;1;0;4;2 #> 19.2;6;167.6;123;3.92;3.44;18.3;1;0;4;4 #> 17.8;6;167.6;123;3.92;3.44;18.9;1;0;4;4 #> 16.4;8;275.8;180;3.07;4.07;17.4;0;0;3;3 #> 17.3;8;275.8;180;3.07;3.73;17.6;0;0;3;3 #> 15.2;8;275.8;180;3.07;3.78;18;0;0;3;3 #> 10.4;8;472;205;2.93;5.25;17.98;0;0;3;4 #> 10.4;8;460;215;3;5.424;17.82;0;0;3;4 #> 14.7;8;440;230;3.23;5.345;17.42;0;0;3;4 #> 32.4;4;78.7;66;4.08;2.2;19.47;1;1;4;1 #> 30.4;4;75.7;52;4.93;1.615;18.52;1;1;4;2 #> 33.9;4;71.1;65;4.22;1.835;19.9;1;1;4;1 #> 21.5;4;120.1;97;3.7;2.465;20.01;1;0;3;1 #> 15.5;8;318;150;2.76;3.52;16.87;0;0;3;2 #> 15.2;8;304;150;3.15;3.435;17.3;0;0;3;2 #> 13.3;8;350;245;3.73;3.84;15.41;0;0;3;4 #> 19.2;8;400;175;3.08;3.845;17.05;0;0;3;2 #> 27.3;4;79;66;4.08;1.935;18.9;1;1;4;1 #> 26;4;120.3;91;4.43;2.14;16.7;0;1;5;2 #> 30.4;4;95.1;113;3.77;1.513;16.9;1;1;5;2 #> 15.8;8;351;264;4.22;3.17;14.5;0;1;5;4 #> 19.7;6;145;175;3.62;2.77;15.5;0;1;5;6 #> 15;8;301;335;3.54;3.57;14.6;0;1;5;8 #> 21.4;4;121;109;4.11;2.78;18.6;1;1;4;2
# Specifying missing values df <- data.frame(x = c(1, NA, 3)) format_csv(df, na = "missing")
#> [1] "x\n1\nmissing\n3\n"
# Quotes are automatically added as needed df <- data.frame(x = c("a ", '"', ",", "\n")) cat(format_csv(df))
#> x #> a #> """" #> "," #> " #> "