read_lines() reads up to n_max lines from a file. New lines are not included in the output. read_lines_raw() produces a list of raw vectors, and is useful for handling data with unknown encoding. write_lines() takes a character vector or list of raw vectors, appending a new line after each entry.

read_lines(file, skip = 0, n_max = -1L, locale = default_locale(),
na = character(), progress = show_progress())

read_lines_raw(file, skip = 0, n_max = -1L, progress = show_progress())

write_lines(x, path, sep = "\n", na = "NA", append = FALSE)

## Arguments

file Either a path to a file, a connection, or literal data (either a single string or a raw vector). Files ending in .gz, .bz2, .xz, or .zip will be automatically uncompressed. Files starting with http://, https://, ftp://, or ftps:// will be automatically downloaded. Remote gz files can also be automatically downloaded and decompressed. Literal data is most useful for examples and tests. It must contain at least one new line to be recognised as data (instead of a path) or be a vector of greater than length 1. Using a value of clipboard() will read from the system clipboard. Number of lines to skip before reading data. Number of lines to read. If n_max is -1, all lines in file will be read. The locale controls defaults that vary from place to place. The default locale is US-centric (like R), but you can use locale() to create your own locale that controls things like the default time zone, encoding, decimal mark, big mark, and day/month names. Character vector of strings to use for missing values. Set this option to character() to indicate no missing values. Display a progress bar? By default it will only display in an interactive session and not while knitting a document. The display is updated every 50,000 values and will only display if estimated reading time is 5 seconds or more. The automatic progress bar can be disabled by setting option readr.show_progress to FALSE. A data frame to write to disk Path or connection to write to. The line separator. Defaults to \n, commonly used on POSIX systems like macOS and linux. For native windows (CRLF) separators use \r\n. If FALSE, will overwrite existing file. If TRUE, will append to existing file. In both cases, if file does not exist a new file is created.

## Value

read_lines(): A character vector with one element for each line. read_lines_raw(): A list containing a raw vector for each line. write_lines() returns x, invisibly.

## Examples

read_lines(file.path(R.home("doc"), "AUTHORS"), n_max = 10)#>  [1] "Authors of R."
#>  [2] ""
#>  [3] "R was initially written by Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka—also known as \"R & R\""
#>  [4] "of the Statistics Department of the University of Auckland."
#>  [5] ""
#>  [6] "Since mid-1997 there has been a core group with write access to the R"
#>  [7] "source, currently consisting of"
#>  [8] ""
#>  [9] "Douglas Bates"
#> [10] "John Chambers"                                                                     read_lines_raw(file.path(R.home("doc"), "AUTHORS"), n_max = 10)#> [[1]]
#>  [1] 41 75 74 68 6f 72 73 20 6f 66 20 52 2e
#>
#> [[2]]
#> raw(0)
#>
#> [[3]]
#>  [1] 52 20 77 61 73 20 69 6e 69 74 69 61 6c 6c 79 20 77 72 69 74 74 65 6e 20 62
#> [26] 79 20 52 6f 62 65 72 74 20 47 65 6e 74 6c 65 6d 61 6e 20 61 6e 64 20 52 6f
#> [51] 73 73 20 49 68 61 6b 61 e2 80 94 61 6c 73 6f 20 6b 6e 6f 77 6e 20 61 73 20
#> [76] 22 52 20 26 20 52 22
#>
#> [[4]]
#>  [1] 6f 66 20 74 68 65 20 53 74 61 74 69 73 74 69 63 73 20 44 65 70 61 72 74 6d
#> [26] 65 6e 74 20 6f 66 20 74 68 65 20 55 6e 69 76 65 72 73 69 74 79 20 6f 66 20
#> [51] 41 75 63 6b 6c 61 6e 64 2e
#>
#> [[5]]
#> raw(0)
#>
#> [[6]]
#>  [1] 53 69 6e 63 65 20 6d 69 64 2d 31 39 39 37 20 74 68 65 72 65 20 68 61 73 20
#> [26] 62 65 65 6e 20 61 20 63 6f 72 65 20 67 72 6f 75 70 20 77 69 74 68 20 77 72
#> [51] 69 74 65 20 61 63 63 65 73 73 20 74 6f 20 74 68 65 20 52
#>
#> [[7]]
#>  [1] 73 6f 75 72 63 65 2c 20 63 75 72 72 65 6e 74 6c 79 20 63 6f 6e 73 69 73 74
#> [26] 69 6e 67 20 6f 66
#>
#> [[8]]
#> raw(0)
#>
#> [[9]]
#>  [1] 44 6f 75 67 6c 61 73 20 42 61 74 65 73
#>
#> [[10]]
#>  [1] 4a 6f 68 6e 20 43 68 61 6d 62 65 72 73
#>
tmp <- tempfile()

write_lines(rownames(mtcars), tmp)
read_lines(tmp)#>  [1] "Mazda RX4"           "Mazda RX4 Wag"       "Datsun 710"
#>  [4] "Hornet 4 Drive"      "Hornet Sportabout"   "Valiant"
#>  [7] "Duster 360"          "Merc 240D"           "Merc 230"
#> [10] "Merc 280"            "Merc 280C"           "Merc 450SE"
#> [13] "Merc 450SL"          "Merc 450SLC"         "Cadillac Fleetwood"
#> [16] "Lincoln Continental" "Chrysler Imperial"   "Fiat 128"
#> [19] "Honda Civic"         "Toyota Corolla"      "Toyota Corona"
#> [22] "Dodge Challenger"    "AMC Javelin"         "Camaro Z28"
#> [25] "Pontiac Firebird"    "Fiat X1-9"           "Porsche 914-2"
#> [28] "Lotus Europa"        "Ford Pantera L"      "Ferrari Dino"
#> [31] "Maserati Bora"       "Volvo 142E"         read_file(tmp) # note trailing \n#> [1] "Mazda RX4\nMazda RX4 Wag\nDatsun 710\nHornet 4 Drive\nHornet Sportabout\nValiant\nDuster 360\nMerc 240D\nMerc 230\nMerc 280\nMerc 280C\nMerc 450SE\nMerc 450SL\nMerc 450SLC\nCadillac Fleetwood\nLincoln Continental\nChrysler Imperial\nFiat 128\nHonda Civic\nToyota Corolla\nToyota Corona\nDodge Challenger\nAMC Javelin\nCamaro Z28\nPontiac Firebird\nFiat X1-9\nPorsche 914-2\nLotus Europa\nFord Pantera L\nFerrari Dino\nMaserati Bora\nVolvo 142E\n"
write_lines(airquality\$Ozone, tmp, na = "-1")
read_lines(tmp)#>   [1] "41"  "36"  "12"  "18"  "-1"  "28"  "23"  "19"  "8"   "-1"  "7"   "16"
#>  [13] "11"  "14"  "18"  "14"  "34"  "6"   "30"  "11"  "1"   "11"  "4"   "32"
#>  [25] "-1"  "-1"  "-1"  "23"  "45"  "115" "37"  "-1"  "-1"  "-1"  "-1"  "-1"
#>  [37] "-1"  "29"  "-1"  "71"  "39"  "-1"  "-1"  "23"  "-1"  "-1"  "21"  "37"
#>  [49] "20"  "12"  "13"  "-1"  "-1"  "-1"  "-1"  "-1"  "-1"  "-1"  "-1"  "-1"
#>  [61] "-1"  "135" "49"  "32"  "-1"  "64"  "40"  "77"  "97"  "97"  "85"  "-1"
#>  [73] "10"  "27"  "-1"  "7"   "48"  "35"  "61"  "79"  "63"  "16"  "-1"  "-1"
#>  [85] "80"  "108" "20"  "52"  "82"  "50"  "64"  "59"  "39"  "9"   "16"  "78"
#>  [97] "35"  "66"  "122" "89"  "110" "-1"  "-1"  "44"  "28"  "65"  "-1"  "22"
#> [109] "59"  "23"  "31"  "44"  "21"  "9"   "-1"  "45"  "168" "73"  "-1"  "76"
#> [121] "118" "84"  "85"  "96"  "78"  "73"  "91"  "47"  "32"  "20"  "23"  "21"
#> [133] "24"  "44"  "21"  "28"  "9"   "13"  "46"  "18"  "13"  "24"  "16"  "13"
#> [145] "23"  "36"  "7"   "14"  "30"  "-1"  "14"  "18"  "20"